By: Otjih Sewandarijatun, Former Director of Mass Communication in LSISI, Alumnus Udayana, Bali
In early 2016, Badrodin Haiti who was serving as Chief of Police, once on the occasion of the National Gathering of 90 Years of Gontor in Tangerang, said that there were three groups of radical organizations in Indonesia, Jemaah Islamiyah, TawhidWal Jihad, and NII. Haiti has identified 21 supporters of ISIS organization in Indonesia, 15 of them are Eastern Majelis Mujahidin Indonesia, the WestIndonesian Mujahidin, Ring Banten, JamaahAnsharutTauhid, Jamaat al-Tawhidwal-Jihad, supporters and defenders of the Islamic State, Jemaah AnsauriDaulah, Ma'hadAnsyarullah, LaskarDinullah, Tawhid Movement Lamongan, HalawiMa'mun Group, AnsharulKhilafah East Java, IS Aceh, the Brotherhood MuahidIndonesifilJazirah al-Muluk, and Khilafatul Muslims. These data certainly surprised all and prove that the real radicalism factually and potentially become a national threat.
The issue of the Radical organizations reappeared end of 2016 when the rise of the National Movement Defenders MUI Fatwa (GNPF-MUI) urging Basuki Purnama Tjahaja alias Ahok trial for alleged blasphemy. The existence of the Islamic Defenders Front (FPI) under the action of anti-blasphemy deemed to have been radicalizing Muslims and develop influence rated some people opposed to issues of Diversity, Pancasila and NKRI.Keberadaan FPI considered a form of radical organizations activities that endanger the harmony masyarakat.Begitupula included the actions undertaken by the organization that campaigns Hitzbut Tahrir Indonesia caliphate as a radical political activity because it conflicts with the state ideology, Pancasila and the Constitution of 1945.
Statements regarding the emergence of groups who carry radical ideologies also reported by Major General Marzuki Thamrin, Deputy II of the Interior, the National Intelligence Agency, in an event at the Hotel Bidakara, March 15, 2017. According to him, the existence of mass radical ideology that causes widespread social conflict.In fact, there are strong indications that the radical ideology of groups using religion as a justification, as well as the demands of the Caliphate and the rejection of the left communist movement issues. The refusal along with the strengthening momentum signaled the revival of political group sympathizers and former PKI members or who was carrying the communist ideology to exist in politics. The rise of various political propaganda symbols PKI and communism have triggered social unrest and to accelerate horizontal conflicts in society.
The Dilemma of Freedom
In 1972, Samuel P. Huntington has made an evaluation in his work on "Political Order in Changing Society" to US foreign policy in Latin countries and called political phenomenon referred to as "too rapid liberalization" or freedom too quickly which led to social and political instability after the fall of authoritarian regimes in Latin countries. The phenomenon of freedom too quickly and excessive apparently also took place in democratization in Indonesia after the New-Order. Explosion of political participation in democracy goes beyond public awareness about the concept and the inherent value of freedom own. As if, just freedom and democracy every person or group can do anything in the name of freedom. They forget that freedom in a democracy there is also a maximum limit of responsibility, the rule of law and the need to create a social and political order (social and political order).
Freedom is now in a situation of dilemma, on the one hand is an essential prerequisite that must be met in a democratic political system and promote the protection of the guarantees human rights, while on the other hand has opened a Pandora's box where as there should be no regulation or restriction by state within the framework of freedom of controlling the character and potential of aggression on each other. In a dilemma situation that later appeared groups that took the momentum to express their views and articulate a radically better attitude on the justification of certain religious beliefs or political ideology.
Political freedom must be protected as Article 28 UUD 1945 guarantees freedom of association and expression, but it certainly should not be contrary to the interests of the state and harm the public luas.Ideologi and the state constitution should be a parameter for evaluating the rise of the radical group that carries understanding and political agenda as opposed to ideology and state constitution. It is being strange when a person or group to appear and publicly expressed views and attitudes those are contrary to Pancasila and the 1945 constitution without any consequences. As if no omission and countries tolerate the existence of groups that could threaten the national interest. Call it such as the group has claimed outright requires the establishment of the Caliphate in Indonesia as Hitzbut Tahrir, a number of organizations that support terrorists such as ISIS, or FPI in action often involves the use of violence and actions against the law, as well as a number of groups that were behind the propaganda of communism.
Need an Effective Regulation
Jean Jacques Rousseau in the Social Contract Du wrote, "Every man has born free, but in chain (everyone is born free, but also chained)". This statement implies the recognition of freedom as human rights, as well as the consequences of the need for regulation of the freedom of it. The emergence of radicalism is an expression of belief in freedom extreme that feel they have the right to assert his existence beyond the interests of others in order to protect its existence. Radicalism is not just limited to thinking and acting rooted to the reality of social order faces, but has grown to coercion of others or society in which they believe the selection.
Within this framework, radical groups are based on religious justification such as ISIS supporters and adherents of communist ideology, believing the truth and reject every single different from them. Those groups will use a variety of options that are effective, including violence, to impose his will. The most moderate expression of radical groups like this is exclusivity, intolerance and prejudice against persons or external group. Expression can progress to other forms of aggression against the group, against the rules, to fight against state authority. Because of that, effective regulation by state the potential development of the organizations or groups that lead to radicalism becomes very important.
Indeed, it's not easy to organize the life of mass organization data. According to Home Affairs, there are about 306.397 organizations are detected, and only 287 were registered. At the provincial level there are about 2.477 organizations is not a legal entity, but a registered obtain a statement from the local government. The Ministry of Justice and Human Rights recorded about 301.760 organizations are legal entities, followed by data from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs which stated there were 66 organizations were founded by foreigners in Indonesia. The official figure listed organizations is expected to be much smaller than the existence of organizations that are not registered.
But the magnitude of potential organizations in the community itself would be difficult for the country, especially the state-owned authority is limited by law to do a revision of the Law Arrangement.The idea of law revision Organizationsneed to expand the government's authority to make the arrangement, including the freeze, prohibit and disband organizations that conflict with state ideology, the constitution and endanger the national interest. Organization need to setup process is effectively implemented to prevent radicalization and utilization organizations to conflicting interests with the state ideology and applicable law. In the other hand, the arrangement also to ensure that is not the absolutism of state power when responding to various community organizations in the community dynamics that could have been merely critical of the powers or perform the function of social control of power.
The state should be present within the framework of creating social and political order in a society that is freedom euphoria. State cannot lose with any form of radical movements that brought the issue of any coaching. Persuasive ways, until the repressive action is all justified within the framework of law enforcement and ensure the interests of the wider community. Government agencies such as the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Religious Affairs, Military-Police, Prosecutors, the National Intelligence Agency, and the relevant stakeholders need to enhance cooperation and coordination in order to prevent the development of radicalization within the organization. The setting of the mass must be placed in the framework of ensuring the existence of organizations that positively contribute to the benefit of the entire community with rests on the principles of human rights protection and rule that apply in the country. Without any presence, undoubtedly happens is anarchy, chaos and conflict in society as ever when law of the jungle applies.
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